mongol art gallery berlin germany'ZURAG' film original  in German 2010 Berlin

'ZURAG' film in the Mongolian national television, 2011 Ulan Bator
(Original record from the MNB broadcast)
The Secret History of the Mongols
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Deutsch - Erstes Kapitel: Tschingis Chaans Vorfahren und seine Kindheit
English -
First Chapter: Genghis Khan's Ancestors and his childhood


List of Khans of the Golden Horde
This is an incomplete list of Khans of the White Horde, Blue Horde, Golden Horde and of the Great Horde (after 1359 not all rulers are accountable). Khans of the Blue Horde are listed as the main constituent part of the Golden Horde, although the Khan's of the Golden Horde were actually descended from Khans of the White Horde.

White Horde
The White Horde (Kazakh: Ақ Орда/Aq Orda, Tatar: Ак Урда/Ak Urda) or the Left wing princes was one of the uluses within the Mongol Empire formed around 1226, after the death of Genghis Khan and subsequent division of his empire. It was the eastern constituent part of the Golden Horde (the western part was the Blue Horde).
Initially it covered the western part of the territory ruled by Jochi and included western Central Asia and south-western Siberia. Its first khan was Orda-Ichen, son of Jochi. The capital of the White Horde was originally at Lake Balkhash, but later moved to Sygnaq, Kazakhstan on the Syr-Darya River. But Seybanids lived along the coast of Syr-Darya in mid 13th century.
When White Horde troops serving under Hulegu in Persia, their noble Kuli, who was a son of Orda, died in 1259/1260. In mid 13th century, White Horde elites supported Arik Boke and Kaidu because they were supported by Golden Horde khans such as Berke and Mengu Temur. But Kunchi had been sided with the Yuan Dynasty and Ilkhan since 1280s. In 1300, Kuruichik deposed Bayan who fled to Tokhta. Kaidu and Duwa saw their chance and supported him. By 1315, Bayan had reoccupied most of his ancestors' lands. And their family began herding around Syr-Darya.
Their khan Chymtai sent his brothers to take the Golden Horde throne during the great turnmoil that began in 1360. But they were all murdered before reaching success. Members from White Horde (sometimes it is the same as Blue Horde), Khizr and then his son Arab Shaykh enthroned in Golden Horde by force.
In 1364, during the Blue Horde's period of anarchy, (1357-1380), Urus Khan, eighth khan of the White Horde, became a contested khan of both the Blue Horde and the White Horde. He extruded the members from the House of Khizr. Urus died in 1377, and when his nephew Toqtamish wrested control of the White Horde from Urus's son Timur-Malik in 1378, he regained control of the Blue Horde as well. Toqtamish consolidated the two hordes, becoming the Khan of the Golden Horde.
  • Orda (1226–1280)
  • Kochu (1280–1302)
  • Buyan (Bayan) (1302–1309)
  • Sasibuqa (1309–1315)
  • Ilbasan (1315–1320)
  • Mubarak Khwaja (1320–1344)
  • Chimtay (1344–1374)
  • Urus (1374–1376)
  • Toqtaqiya (1376)
  • Timur-Malik (1377)
  • Toqtamish (1377–1378)
Blue Horde
The Blue Horde (Kazakh: Көк Орда/Kök Orda, Tatar: Күк Урда/Kük Urda, Turkish: Gök Ordu) was one of the uluses within the Mongol Empire formed around 1227, after the death of Genghis Khan and subsequent division of his empire. It was the western constituent part of the Golden Horde (the eastern part was the White Horde).
Batu Khan effectively founded the Blue Horde upon the withdrawal from Europe in 1242 and by 1245, Sarai, the capital of the Blue Horde had been founded on the lower Volga. At the same time, the eastern lands of the Golden Horde were administered by Batu's older brother Orda, and these came to be known as the White Horde. Batu asserted his control over the Russian principalities after sacking the cities of Vladimir in 1238 and Kiev in 1240, forcing them to pay annual tribute and accept his nominations as princes.
Golden Age
The Blue Horde stretched from the Ural River to the mouths of the Danube and the Carpathian. It exacted tribute from most of the Russian principalities and carried raids as far west as Poland and as far south as Iran and Bulgaria.
Starting with the conversion of Berke to Islam, the Blue Horde made a traditional alliance with the Mamluks of Egypt against their common rival, the Il-Khans.
From the 1280s until 1299, the Blue Horde was effectively under the control of two khans, the legitimate khans and Nogai Khan, a warlord and kingmaker, who made an alliance with the Byzantine Empire and invaded countries bordering the Blue Horde, particularly in the Balkans. Nogai's pre-eminence was ended by the assertion of the legitimate Khan Toqta, and the Blue Horde reached the apex of its power and prosperity during the reigns of Uzbeg Khan (Öz Beg) and his son Jani Beg in the middle of the 14th century, when it intervened in the affairs of the disintegrating Ilkhanate.
The Blue Horde remained strong from its foundation (around 1240) until the 1350s. Problems in the west of the horde led to the eventual losses of Wallachia, Dobruja, Moldavia and the western Ukraine and the vassal principalities west of Kiev, losing those lands to Lithuania after being defeated by its army in the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, and Poland. The Death of Jani Beg led to the Blue Horde entering into a prolonged civil war, with concurrent khans fighting each other and holding no real power. At the same time Mamai turned kingmaker in the Blue Horde. In this time, Muscovy seceded from Mongol overlordship (at least until the early 1400s).
It was not until the coming of Tokhtamysh that the concurrent khans were removed. He united the Blue Horde with his own White Horde and created the Golden Horde in 1380. The Blue Horde merged into both the other hordes, yet never really went away until finally the Golden Horde was defeated.
  • Batu (1242–1255)
  • Sartaq (1255–1256)
  • Ulaghchi (1257)
  • Berke (1257–1266)
  • Mengu-Timur (1266–1280)
  • Tuda-Mengu (1280–1287), actual ruler was Nogai Khan
  • Talabuga (1287–1291), actual ruler was Nogai Khan
  • Tokhta (1291–1312), actual ruler was Nogai Khan until 1299
  • Öz Beg (1313–1341)
  • Tini Beg (1341–1342)
  • Jani Beg (1342–1357)
Some 25 khans succeeded each other in between 1357 and 1379, and multiple Khans ruled all over the Horde from 1362.
  • Berdi Beg (1357–1359)
  • Qulpa (1359–1360)
  • Nawruz Beg (1360–1361)
  • Khidr (1361–1362)
  • Timur Khwaja (1362)
  • Abdallah (1362–1370), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Murad (1362–1367), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Aziz (1367–1369), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Jani Beg II (1369–1370), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Muhammad Bolak (1370–1379), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Tulun Beg Khanum (1370–1373), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Aig Beg (1373–1376), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Arab Shaykh (1376–1379), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Kagan Beg (1375–1376), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Ilbani (1373–1376), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Hajji Cherkes (1375–1376), actual ruler was Mamai Khan
  • Mamai Khan (1379)
  • Urus (1376–1378), Urus was also Khan of the White Horde and uncle of Toqtamish, allowing the Hordes to unite.
Golden Horde
After Toqtamish had united the White and Blue Hordes in 1379, the number of concurrent rival khans was reduced but their regimes remained unstable:
  • Toqtamish (1379–1395)
  • Temür Qutlugh (1396–1401), actual ruler was Edigu
  • Shadi Beg (1401–1407), actual ruler was Edigu
  • Pulad Khan (1407–1410), actual ruler was Edigu
  • Temür (1410–1412)
  • Jalal ad-Din (1412)
  • Karim Berdi (1412–1414)
  • Kebek (1414–1417)
  • Jabbar Berdi (1417–1419)
  • Ulugh Muhammad (1419–1421, 1428–1433)
  • Dawlat Berdi (1419–1421)
  • Baraq (1422–1427)
  • Sayid Ahmad I (1433–1435)
Great Horde
The Great horde was the steppe remnant of the Golden Horde from about 1466 until 1502. The Nogais and Kazakhs also had divisions called 'Great Horde'.
The peripheral regions of the Golden Horde broke off as follows: 1438: Kazan Khanate, 1441: Crimean Khanate, 1466: Astrakhan Khanate. The remnant, which became known as the Great Horde, was left with the steppe between the Dnieper and Yaik, the capital Sarai and a claim to represent the tradition of the Golden Horde. By the 1470s the Nogais north of the Caspian were hostile to the Great Horde and, in the west, and Poland-Lithuania was expanding along the Dnieper.
In 1480 Muscovy and Crimea formed an alliance against the Great Horde which in turn allied with Lithuania. In 1480 the Great Horde's attempt to invade Muscovy failed. In 1481, its ruler Akhmat Khan was killed by the Nogais. He was succeeded by his son Shaikh 'Ali. After this, the Horde was weakened by conflicts among Akhmat's sons.
In the spring of 1491 the Crimean Khan suggested that Moscow send troops to finish off the Great Horde since he had ‘seized all the Horde’s horses’. Moscow sent some Tatar and Russian cavalry and the Ottomans sent 2,000 Janissaries. By November part of the Horde had seceded and the remainder had been routed by the Nogais. By 1500 it was reported near the Kuban and in very bad shape after having been beaten by the Kabardinians. In 1501 Sheikh Ahmad Khan and 20,000 of his people moved north of the Don. Many of his people deserted.
In 1502 the Crimean Khan seized most of the Horde’s people and herds and moved them to the Crimea (sometime before July 3 and somewhere near the Sula River). Sheikh Ahmad fled. He was next reported near Kazan with 4,000 horsemen negotiating with Muscovy. He then went to Astrakhan from which he was expelled by the Nogais (1504). He then moved to Kiev to deal with the Polish king and then to Akkerman to deal with the Ottomans. He was last reported as a Lithuanian prisoner at Vilna.
  • Küchük Muhammad (1435–1459)
  • Mahmud (1459–1465)
  • Ahmad (1465–1481)
  • Shaykh Ahmad (1481–1498, 1499–1502)
  • Sayid Ahmad II (1481–?)
  • Murtada (1481–1499)
  • C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, New York, 1996.
  • ^ Edward L. Keenan, Encyclopedia Americana article
  • ^ B.D. Grekov and A.Y. Yakubovski "The Golden Horde and its Downfall"
  • ^ Far East Kingdoms
  • ^ Kazakh Khanate
  • ^ It is unclear that Arab was his son. Some claimed that they were relatives
  • ^ The struggle against the Khan Toqtamish
  • ^ Far East Kingdoms
  • ^ Khodarkovsky, Michael, Russia's Steppe Frontier, 2002

Text from Wikipedia