mongol art gallery berlin germany'ZURAG' film original  in German 2010 Berlin

'ZURAG' film in the Mongolian national television, 2011 Ulan Bator
(Original record from the MNB broadcast)
The Secret History of the Mongols
026-0270.jpg.medium.jpeg facebook

Deutsch - Zweites Kapitel: Tschingis Chaans Jugend
English - 
Second Chapter: Genghis Khan's Youth


Tolui, also rendered Toluy, Tului or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: Толуй хаан; Chinese: 拖雷; pinyin: Tuōléi; 1193 – 1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. His ulus, or territorial inheritance, at his father's death in 1227 was the homelands in Mongolia, and it was he who served as civil administrator in the time it took to confirm Ögedei as second Khagan of the Mongol Empire (1206-1368). Before that, he had served with distinction in the campaigns against the Jin Dynasty, the Xi Xia and the Khwarezmid Empire, where he was instrumental in the capture and massacre at Merv and Nishapur.

Early years
During the rise of Genghis Khan, Tolui was too small to involve in the battles. Tolui was almost killed by a Tatar when he was about five. He was saved by his sister Altani and 2 companions of Genghis. In 1203, His father bestowed on Tolui as wife Sorghaghtani, the niece of Ong Khan. Their first son Mongke was born in 1209. He was the best warrior among the sons of Genghis. He first entered combat against the Jin Dynasty in 1213, scaling the walls of Dexing with his brother-in-law Chiqu.
In 1221, Genghis Khan dispatched him to Khorasan in Iran. The cities in this area had revolted several times. The defenders of Nishapur killed Toquchar, the brother-in-law of Tolui in November 1220. Tolui's army evacuated Nishapur onto the plains. He ordered total massacres of Nishapur and Merv.

Genghis Khan's succession
When Genghis Khan was deciding who should succeed him he had trouble choosing between his 4 sons. Tolui had amazing military skills and was very successful as a general, but Genghis Khan chose Ögodei because Ögodei was more capable politically. Genghis Khan felt that Tolui would be too cautious to be an effective leader. Tolui was with Genghis on his campaign against the Xi Xia in 1227.
After Genghis Khan's death, Tolui generally supervised the Mongol Empire for 2 years. The Mongol nobles' moves were partly influenced by the tradition that the youngest son inherits his father's properties and partly because Tolui had the largest and most powerful army in central Mongolia at the time. Tolui supported the election of the Khagan and Ögodei was chosen as the Emperor, fulfilling his father's wishes.
Tolui campaigned with Ogedei and Mongke in North China, serving as both strategist and field commander in 1231-32. After most of the Jin's defences breached, they returned north.

Death and legacy
According to the Secret History of the Mongols, Tolui sacrificed himself in order to cure Ögödei from a very severe illness during a campaign in China. The shamans had determined that the root of Ögödei's illness were China's spirits of the earth and the water, who were upset that their subjects had been driven away and their land devastated. Offering land, animals and people had only lead to an aggravation of Ögödei's illness, but when they offered to sacrifice a family member, Ögödei got better immediately. Tolui volunteered and died directly after consuming a cursed drink. However, Ata Malik Juvaini says he died from alcoholism.
Perhaps more important than him was the role his family, the Toluids, had in shaping the destinies of the Mongol Empire. Through his Christian wife Sorghaghtani Beki, Tolui fathered Möngke, Kublai, Ariq Boke, and Hulagu, and thus was the progenitor the Great Khans, Emperors of the Yuan Dynasty, and of the Il Khans. During the civil war of the Mongol Empire, the Toluids supported the court of the Great Khan.However, it was a rivalry from among Tolui's own sons, Kublai and Ariq Boke, that fragmented the power of the empire and set the western khanates against each other in the early 1260s.
Rivalry between the Toluids and the sons of Ögedei and Jochi caused stagnation and infighting during the regency periods after the deaths of Ögedei and his son Güyük. Mongke retroactively awarded his father the title of Khagan in 1252. When Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, he had his father Tolui placed on the official record as Ruizong.

Tolui had many concubines and wifes. But the chief one was Sorghaghtani who was the mother of Tolui's 5 sons.
Tolui's sons included:
  • Mongke Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
  • Jurikha
  • Qutughtu
  • Kublai, the Great Khan of the Mongols and the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty.
  • Hulegu, the first Ilkhan of Mongol Persia.
  • Arik Boke, Khagan claimant who was supported by the Mongols against Kublai.
  • Bujek, the commander who led armies into Russia and Hungary.
  • Mukha
  • Satukhtai
  • Sabukhtai
  1. ^ The secret history of the Mongols
  2. ^ William Bayne Fisher, John Andrew Boyle, Ilya Gershevitch, Ehsan Yar - The Cambridge History of Iran, p.313
  3. ^ Frederick W. Mote-Imperial China 900-1800, p.447
  4. ^ Paul Kahn, Francis Woodman Cleaves-The secret history of the Mongols, p.xxvi
  5. ^ Jack Weatherford-Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world, p.169

Text from Wikipedia