mongol art gallery berlin germany'ZURAG' film original  in German 2010 Berlin

'ZURAG' film in the Mongolian national television, 2011 Ulan Bator
(Original record from the MNB broadcast)
The Secret History of the Mongols
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Deutsch - Zweites Kapitel: Tschingis Chaans Jugend
English - 
Second Chapter: Genghis Khan's Youth


Ariq Böke
Ariq Böke, or Arigh Bukha, or a combination of both (Mongolian: Аригбөх; Chinese: 阿里不哥; died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. His brothers were Möngke Khan, Hulagu Khan and Kublai Khan. He is counted as Great Khan sometimes.

Early years
He peacefully attended the elections of both his uncle Great Khan Ogedei and Ogedei's successor Guyuk. After his eldest brother enthroned in 1250, his family became even more powerful among the Chingisids. Ariq Böke is also known for being sympathetic towards Christianity; this is known from the account of Franciscan William of Rubruck, who was an envoy of French King Louis IX.

Succession struggle
Great Khan
When Mongke left Mongolia to conquer Southern China in 1258, he entrusted all affairs of the Heartland to Ariq Böke. In 1259 the Great Khan Möngke died. As Ariq Böke was commander of the Mongol homelands, and as Kublai Khan was campaigning against the Southern Song Dynasty of China at the time of Möngke's death, he decided to attempt to make himself Khan. Hearing of this, Kublai aborted his Chinese expedition and was elected as Khan in April of 1260. Still, Ariq Böke had his supporters, such as Mongke's widow and sons as well as other princes of the Golden family and powerful ministers, and was elected as a rival to Kublai at Karakorum. Torguud royal bodyguards and White Horde elites joined him. Oirats strengthened his force because one of the Oirat leaders was married to his daughter. The brothers then engaged in a series of battles. Ariq Böke killed Kublai's contender for the throne of the Chagatai Khanate and installed his ally Alghu instead. He ordered Alghu to defend from Hulegu's forces and possible presence of Berke of Golden Horde. But Alghu deserted him and killed his envoys for a large amount of booty, while Kaidu remained loyal to him. Soon they fought each other. At first Ariq Böke was defeated but forced Alghu to flee westward at the second engagement.

Eventually, Ariq Böke lost power because of the continuing war with his brother Kublai Khan, who had powerful Mongol cavalries, Alan and Turk contingents and numerous Chinese and Goryeo infantries. Kublai's supporter Kadan, the son of Ogedei, crushed his force under general Alandar, and Ariq Böke lost Karakorum twice. Kublai blockaded all trade to Mongolia from North China to cut the food supply. Ariq Böke realized his disadvantage and submitted to Kublai in 1264. Kublai asked his brother which of the two sides in the struggle for the office of Grand Khan was correct before the assembled court. Arik Boke was still proud and answered "We were then, and you are today". Then the brothers hugged each other. It seems that Berke accepted Ariq Böke's overlordship, because he minted coins with his name. Kublai executed his companions but decided to show mercy to Ariq Böke and his ally Asutai, the son of Mongke. Hulagu, Berke, and Alghu acknowledged the decision Kublai made. Kublai held Ariq Böke prisoner until he died two years later; some scholars believe he was poisoned.

"At least when viewed in retrospect, Ariq Böke can be seen as representing an influential school of thought among the Mongols, which Kublai through his actions and attitudes after 1260 opposed. Some Mongols felt there was a dangerous drift towards softness, typified in those like Kublai who thought there was something to be said for settled civilization and for the Chinese way of life. In the traditionalist view, the Mongol center ought to remain in Mongolia, and the Mongols' nomadic life be preserved uncontaminated. China ought merely to be exploited. Ariq Böke came to be regarded as this faction's figurehead." (Morgan 2007, pp.104–105) Scholars believe that Kaidu (Khaidu) continued his legacy. Although Ariq Böke lost power, some of his descendants later became important figures in the Ilkhanate and the Northern Yuan Dynasty. The lineage of both Ilkhan Arpa Ke'un and Yesüder can be traced back to him.

  • Morgan, David (2007). The Mongols. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 104–105. ISBN 1405135395.
  • Rene Grousset - Empire of the Steppes
  • Morris Rossabi - Kublai Khan
  • Jack Wheaterford - Genghis khan and the Making of the Modern World
  • John Man - Kublai Khan
  • H.H.Howorth - History of the Mongols Part II.

Text from Wikipedia