mongol art gallery berlin germany'ZURAG' film original  in German 2010 Berlin

'ZURAG' film in the Mongolian national television, 2011 Ulan Bator
(Original record from the MNB broadcast)
The Secret History of the Mongols
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Deutsch - Zweites Kapitel: Tschingis Chaans Jugend
English - 
Second Chapter: Genghis Khan's Youth


Wang Khan

Wang Khan, (Chinese: 王汗; pinyin: Wáng Hàn) also Ong Khan, was the title given to the Kerait ruler Toghrul by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty of China. Like the rest of their tribe he may have been Nestorian Christian. Wang Khan was the blood brother of Temüjin's father Yesükhei, and he acted as a patron and early ally for Temüjin (who was later known as Genghis Khan).
When Temüjin attacked Jamuqa for the title of Khan, Toghrul, fearing Temüjin's growing power, plotted with Jamuqa to have him assassinated. He was killed in 1203 by Naiman soldiers who failed to recognize him, after fleeing from a defeat against Genghis Khan. Genghis married one of Toghrul's nieces, the Nestorian Christian Sorghaghtani Beki, to his son Tolui, who by her gave birth to Mongke Khan.
During the 13th century, Wang Khan was one of several Asian or African leaders who was identified with the legend of Prester John.

  • ^ Marie-Therese Gousset, p.42
  • ^ Igor de Rachewiltz, Papal Envoys to the Great Khans (Stanford University Press, 1971), p. 114.
Jamuqa (could also be spelled Jamuka, Djamugha or Yamuqa or similar) was a Mongol military and political leader and the chief rival to Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, in the unification of the Mongol tribes. Born in the Jadirat, a sub-tribe of the Mongols, Jamuqa was a childhood friend and a blood brother to Temüjin.
When Borte, wife of Temüjin, was abducted by the Merkit tribe, Wang Khan, Jamuqa and Temüjin combined forces against the Merkits to recover her.
In 1201, a kurultai elected Jamuqa as Gur Khan, universal ruler, a title used by the rulers of the Kara-Khitan Khanate. Jamuqa's assumption of this title was the final breach between Temüjin and Jamuqa, leading Temüjin to form a coalition of tribes to oppose him.
Jamuqa was less successful in coalition-building because, unlike Temüjin, he maintained traditional divisions between tribes in his forces and assigned commands by hereditary rank rather than merit. In particular, Jamuqa did not recruit shepherds who lacked tribal status in the Mongol tradition. This allowed Temüjin to recover from a series of military defeats inflicted by Jamuqa and to emerge victorious.
Jamuqa was eventually betrayed to Temüjin by his followers in 1206. Temüjin executed Jamuqa's betrayers on the principle that betrayal merits the harshest punishment. The Secret History of the Mongols states that Temüjin offered renewal of their brotherhood, but Jamuqa insisted that just as there was room for only one sun in the sky, there was room only for one Mongol lord. So he asked to be executed by a noble death without spilling blood. His request was granted by having his back broken by Temüjin's soldiers.

Börte Ujin (Mongolian: Бөртэ үжин) (born c. 1162) was the first wife of Genghis Khan (1162-1227), the founder of the Mongol Empire. Börte became the head of the first Court of Genghis Khan, and Grand Empress of his Empire. Little is known about the details of her early life, but she was betrothed to him at a young age, married at 17, and then kidnapped by a rival tribe. The decision by her husband to rescue her may have been one of the key decisions that started him on his path to conquer the world. She gave birth to four sons and three daughters, who, along with their own descendants, were the key bloodline which further expanded the Mongol Empire.

Early life
Few historical facts are known about her life, but Mongolians have many legends about her. What little is known, is generally from The Secret History of the Mongols.
Börte was born around 1162 into the Onggirat tribe, where her father, Dei Seichen, was a chieftain. Her mother's name was Tchotan. This tribe was friendly to the Kiyad tribe, into which Temüjin (Genghis Khan) was born. Little is known about the details of her meeting with Temujin. It was decided, perhaps by others, that Börte was to marry Temüjin at the marriageable age of 12.

After she married Temujin, she was abducted in a dawn raid by the Merkit tribe. Several months later, Temüjin, with his allies Wang Khan and Jamuqa, rescued her from her captors. Some scholars describe this event, when Temujin decided to rescue her, as one of the key crossroads in his life, which moved him along the path towards becoming a conqueror.
Börte had been held captive for eight months, and she gave birth to Jochi after she was rescued, leaving doubt as to who the father of the child was. However, Genghis let Jochi remain with his family. Because of his doubt of being Jochi's real father, he would not let him and any of his children, be in direct line for Genghis's empire.

Grand Empress
She was revered by the Mongols after Temüjin became the Great Khan, and was crowned the Grand Empress. As Genghis Khan continued to expand his influence and empire, Börte remained behind and assisted Genghis Khan's brother Temuge in ruling the Mongol homeland.
Börte is often portrayed as a beautiful woman dressed in a white silken gown, with gold coins in her hair, holding a white lamb, and riding a white steed.

Börte's sons:
  • Jochi, may not be Genghis Khan's biological offspring (mother was captured by Merkit people)
  • Chagatai
  • Ögedei
  • Tolui, may not be Genghis Khan's biological offspring (father was captured by Jurchen people) 
  • Khojen Beki, the eldest, was betrothed to Tusakha, son of Senggum, and grandson of Ong Khan, ruler of the Kerait tribe; she eventually married Botu, of the Ikires tribe, and widower of her paternal aunt Temulun.
  • Alaqai Beki, married first to Alaqush Digit Quri, chieftain of the Ongüt tribe; then to his nephew and heir Jingue; and finally to her stepson Boyaohe
  • Tümelün, married to Chigu, son of Anchen, son of Dei Sechen, Börte's father
  • Altalün, married first to Olar, chieftain of the Olqunu’ut tribe; then to her stepson Taichu
  • Checheyigen, married to Törölchi, son of Quduka beki, of the Oirat tribe.
Although several of Genghis Khan's children by other wives or concubines received some form of recognition in the empire, including land or military commands, including troops, only Börte's children were recognized as potential Great Khans. She, together with his mother Hoelun, was counted as one of his most trusted advisors.

  • Lev Gumilev. From the Rus to Russia, 1992 (Polish edition, PIW Warszawa 1996, pp.103-105. ISBN 83-06-02421-4
  • Grousset, Rene. Conqueror of the World: The Life of Chingis-khan (New York: The Viking Press, 1944) ISBN 0-670-00343-3.
  • Ratchnevsky, Paul. Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. (Blackwell Publishing 1991) ISBN 0-631-16785-4.
  • Man, John. Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection (London; New York : Bantam Press, 2004) ISBN 0-593-05044-4.

Text from Wikipedia