mongol art gallery berlin germany'ZURAG' film original  in German 2010 Berlin

'ZURAG' film in the Mongolian national television, 2011 Ulan Bator
(Original record from the MNB broadcast)
The Secret History of the Mongols
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Deutsch - Zweites Kapitel: Tschingis Chaans Jugend
English - 
Second Chapter: Genghis Khan's Youth


Merkit people

The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means "wise ones," "adept ones," "skillful ones," "(skillful) archers," or "hunters" in Mongolian) were a Turkic or Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. After a long struggle over two decades, the Merkits were defeated and incorporated into the Mongol nation formed by Temüjin (later Genghis Khan) in the first decade of the 13th century. They disappear as a separate group after the Mongol unification of 1206.

Ethnic relations
The ethnicity of the Merkits is somewhat obscure; most likely they were Turkic or Mongolic (related to Mongols, Naimans, Keraits, and Khitan), but it has also been postulated that they are more closely related to Paleosiberian, such as the Chukchi, or to Tungusic peoples, such as the Manchu and the Evenks.

Conflict with Genghis Khan
Temüjin's mother Hoelun, originally from the Olkhunut tribe, had been engaged to the Merkit warrior Chiledu by 1153. She was abducted by Temüjin's father Yesugei, while being escorted home by Chiledu.
In turn, Temüjin's new wife Börte was kidnapped by Merkit raiders from their campsite by the Onon river around 1184 and given to one of their warriors. Temüjin, supported by his blood brother Jamuga and his foster-father Toghril, the Khan of the Keraits, attacked the Merkit and rescued Börte within the year. The Merkit were dispersed after this attack. Shortly thereafter she gave birth to a son named Jochi. Temüjin accepted paternity but the question kept lingering over Jochi's life. Those incidents resulted in a strong animosity between Temüjin and his family and the Merkits. Over the following two decades, he attacked them several times.
By the time he had united the other Mongol tribes and was given the title "Genghis Khan" in 1206, the Merkits seem to have disappeared as a separate ethnic group. Those who survived were most likely absorbed by other Mongol tribes, such as the Oirats and others who fled to Kypchaks mixed with them. In 1215-1218, Jochi and Subotai crushed the remnants of them under their former leader Toghta Bekis' family. The Mongols clashed with the Kankalis or the Kypchaks because they gave shelter to them. Genghis Khan had Merkit Khatun named Khulan. Genghis and her son Khulgen died during the siege of Russian settlement in Ryazan in 1236. During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, a body of the Merkid was found in the Bulgar-Kypchak dominated areas in 1236.

Late Merkits
Few Merkits achieved prominent position among the Mongols. But they were classified as the Mongols in Mongolian Society. Great Khan Guyuk's beloved khatun Oghul Qaimish, who was a regent from 1248-1251, was a Merkid woman. And traditionalist Bayan and his cousin Toghta served as Grand councilors of Mongol Dynasty in China and Mongolia. After the fall of the Great Yuan, they were a clan of a banner in Northern Yuan Dynasty, or Mongolian Khaanate.

  • ^ Soucek, Svat (2000) (in English). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0521657044. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
  • ^ They were always counted as a part of the Mongols within the Mongol Empire, however, scholars traditionally believe that they were the Turkic people, see also: Christopher P. Atwood - Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire ISBN 9780816046713, Facts on File, Inc. 2004.
  • ^ Jack Weatherford (2004). Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-609-61062-6 (0-609-61062-7). Most of the dates in this article are from this book, which is mainly based on the Secret History.
The Jalayir are an originally Mongol and later turcicised tribe that formed a part of Khalkha people in Mongolia and eventually founded the Jalayirid Dynasty in Iran and Iraq.

Early history
The Jalayir might be the Chaladi who were recorded in Chinese sources of 910. According to the record, they colonized eastern Inner Mongolia. The Jalayirs fought the Borjigins and defeated them utterly. But Khaidu the Borjigin (or Qaidu I) conquered and dispersed them among Mongol tribes around 1060.
The Jalayirs such as Muqali helped Genghis Khan to found his Empire. During the Mongol invasion of Khorazm in 1219-1223, Muqali campaigned in North China as the first prince of the state (guo-wang) and a viceory. The Jalayirs served under Great Khans as steward, chief judge, imperial tutor and advisor. Genghis Khan also gave 1,000 men under Jalayir Moqe noyan to his son Chagatai Khan in Turkestan. And a body of the Jalayir settled in Golden Horde.

Medieval Jalayirs
When Mongke Khan ordered Hulegu (Alau) to conquer Abbasid caliphate, Ayyubids in Syria and Mamluks in Egypt in 1252, the Jalayirs prepared strong military contingent. Their commander Kok-Elege participated sieges of Persian and Arabian fortresses from 1256-1261 and the battle against Berke's commander Nogai Khan in 1262.
Under Genghis Khan's successors, Muqali's descendants inherited his title and came to be one of the mainstays of Confucian influence in the Yuan Dynasty, or the Empire of Great Khan. The Jalayirs were close to Great Khans in China and Il-khans in Iran. In Il-khanate, Jalayir Buqa revolted against Tekuder Khan and installed Hulegu's grandson Arghun in 1284. But his coup was revealed and executed by his protege later. After the death of Qazan Khan (r. 1343-1346), Chagatai Khanate fell under the control of nomadic Turco-Mongol clans: the Jalayir in the north, the Arlat in the west, the Barlas in the centre, the Qaraunas and the Qa'uchin in the south-west and the Dughlats in the east. Meanwhile, Hasan Buzurg established Jalayirid Dynasty and tried to reunite Turco-Mongol states in the name of his puppet khans in Iraq and western Persia of which fell into political chaos after the death of Il-khan Arpa Ke'un in 1336. When Tamerlane ravaged the Jalayirid Dynasty of Ahmad (1383 - 1410), Central Asian Jalayirs were one of main clans in both Timurid Empire and Moghulistan. The Jalayirids in Persia were finally overthrown by Kara Koyunlu Turks in 1432. But the Jalayirs in Central Asia were active for two more centuries.
In 16th century, the Jalayirs played important role in Eastern and Central Mongolian politics. They were one of the 14 clans of Khalkha tumen and Dayan Khan's son Gersenj was written in Mongolian chronicles as the prince of Jalayir (Jalaid).

Modern Jalayirs
Today the Jalayir clans found among Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Bashkirs. It is found at present as a clan and a banner in the Jirim and Ordos Leagues as well as Chahar of Inner Mongolia.

  • Christopher P. Atwood - Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire ISBN 9780816046713, Facts on File, Inc. 2004.
  • The Chinese government. By William Frederick Mayers, George Macdonald Home Playfair. Published by Kelly & Walsh, Limited, 1886.
  • Rene Grousset "The Empire of the Steppes - a History of Central Asia" ISBN 0-8135-0627-1, Rutgers University Press, 6th paperback edition, 1999
The Tayichiud were a Mongolian tribe, mostly residing in the centre of Mongolia and southeastern area.
The Tayichiud were rivals of the Naimans and several other tribes. In the Secret History of the Mongols, they are portrayed as bitter enemies of Genghis Khan. As allies of Jamukha and the Keraits, they could defeat the latter bitterly.
Although ruling Tayichiud clan was destroyed by Genghis, their descendants, who surrendered, achieved fame in parts of Mongol Empire. Jebe (born Jurgadai), who stroke final blow to the Jurchens in Manchuria in 1219 and defeated Kypchaks and their European allies at the battle of Kalka in 1223, was from Besud clan of Tayichiud.
Baiju, the commander of the Tammachi in Persia, was also from Besud clan of the Tayichud. Chilaun, the one of Genghis Khan's 4 close companions, was from the Suldus, the sub-clan of the Tayichiud. His descendant Chupan reached the peak of his career during the reign of Ilkhan Abu Said and was given the title of chief commander of all Mongol Khanates by the court of Yuan Dynasty in 1327. In Chagatai Khanate, another aristocrat Buyan Suldus overthrew Qara'unas in Transoxiana in 1359 but was executed by Chagatai Khan Tughluq Temur in 1362.
People with clan name the Tayichud or the Taichud are found among the Mongolians in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia.

  • the Secret History of the Mongols
  • The Fall of Amir Chupan and the Decline of the Ilkhanate, 1327-1337 By Charles Peter Melville
  • Abu Bakr al-Ahri Tarikh-i Shaikh Uwais
The Onggirat or the Khunggirat (Mongolian: Хонгират, Kazakh: Қоңырат) is a Central Asian tribe, one of the major divisions of the Mongols. Variations on the name include Wangjila (王紀剌), Yongjilie (雍吉烈), and Guangjila (廣吉剌) in Chinese sources and Ongrat or Kungrat in Turkish.
The original pastures of the Khunggirats were in eastern Mongolia, near lake Hulun. Genghis Khan's wife, Borte was a member of this tribe, so it was held in high regard by the Mongol Empire. The wives of most rulers of the Yuan Dynasty and Golden Horde were also Khunggirats. That is why, they held enormous powers behind the courts in both states. They forced the rulers of Golden Horde to make peace with Kublai in 1280's and convinced Tokhta Khan to accept supremacy of the Great Khan in 1304. The Khunggirat under queen Dagi and Temüder, the Minister of the Secretariat, reached their political peak in the Mongol Dynasty, the principle state of 4 khanates, during the reign of Gegeen Khan Shidebala (r.1321-1323).
After the death of the Great Khan Toghan Temur, who lost his imperial status in China and other Mongol states, a body of the Khunggirat and Olkhunut (Borte's clan)surrendered to the Ming Dynasty in 1371. Meanwhile, the Khunggirats, belonged to the southern Khalkha tumen in modern Inner Mongolia and Olkhunuts lived in modern Khovd Province.
In the 1700s the basins of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya passed under the control of three Uzbek khanates claiming legitimacy in their descent from Genghis Khan. These were, from west to east, the Qunggirats based on Khiva in Khwārezm (1717–1920), the Mangits in Bukhara (1753–1920), and the Mings in Kokand (Qǔqon; c. 1710–1876). The Sufi Dynasty (1359-1388) which was founded by the Khunggirat elites in Khwārezm ruled their own state under the Jochids and Timur. The Khunggirat inaqs became de facto rulers of the Khiva Dynasty in 1700's and their descendants assumed the title of khan themselves in 1804. On 2 February 1920, Khiva's last khan, Sayyid Abdullah, abdicated before its territory was finally incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1924.
The descendants of Khunggirat people are found among the Mongolians in western parts of Mongolia and the Yugurs in Gansu, China. Clan by this name are known at present within the Middle Juz of the Kazakh nation, the Karakalpaks and the Uzbegs.

Text from Wikipedia